In North America, prostate cancer occurs in: 30 percent of men over
age 70, 60 percent of men over age 80 and 90 percent of men over age
We do not know what causes prostate cancer, but increased risk for
prostate cancer is associated with: • Eating red meat cooked at high
temperatures (Carcinogenesis, 10/30/2012).
• Lack of sunlight. Men who live in cities north of 40 degrees
latitude (north of Philadelphia, PA, Columbus, OH, or Provo, UT)
have the highest risk for dying from prostate cancer of any men
in North America.
• Smoking cigarettes.
RISK FOR AGGRESSIVE PROSTATE CANCER: More than 95 percent of men
with prostate cancer have a slow growing disease that will not harm
them. However, about three percent will have an AGGRESSIVE disease
that grows rapidly and can kill them. Factors that are associated
with increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer include:
• not eating lots of fruits and vegetables
• being overweight
• eating red meat
• being over six feet tall
• not exercising
• eating foods rich in calcium (Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &
• having a father or brother with prostate cancer
• exposure to toxic substances such as Agent Orange
• saturated fat (J Nat Can Inst 1995;87(9):652-661)
• where you live: for example, men who live in Scandinavian and
North American countries are at increased risk, compared to those
living in Asian countries.
FACTORS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH PROSTATE CANCER: We have no evidence
that the following conditions increase a man's risk for developing
• enlarged prostate, called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
• a prostate infection
• having a vasectomy
• frequent ejaculations (some studies actually show decreased
incidence of prostate cancer in men who ejaculate frequently).